References

REFERENCES

1. Smallridge RC, Copland JA 2010 Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: pathogenesis and emerging therapies. Clin Oncol 22:486–497.
 
2. Passler C, Scheuba C, Prager G, Kaserer K, Flores JA, Vierhapper H, Niederle B 1999 Anaplastic (undifferentiated) thyroid carcinoma (ATC). A retrospective analysis. Langenbecks Arch Surg 384:284–293.
 
3. Dijkstra B, Prichard RS, Lee A, Kelly LM, Smyth PP, Crotty T, McDermott EW, Hill AD, O'Higgins N 2007 Changing patterns of thyroid carcinoma. Ir J Med Sci 176:87–90.
 
4. Singer PA, Cooper DS, Daniels GH, Ladenson PW, Greenspan FS, Levy EG, Braverman LE, Clark OH, McDougall IR, Ain KV, Dorfman SG 1996 Treatment guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and well-differentiated thyroid cancer. American Thyroid Association. Arch Intern Med 156:2165–2172.
 
5. Cooper DS, Doherty GM, Haugen BR, Kloos RT, Lee SL, Mandel SJ, Mazzaferri EL, McIver B, Sherman SI, Tuttle RM 2006 Management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid 16:109–142.
 
6. Cooper DS, Doherty GM, Haugen BR, Kloos RT, Lee SL, Mandel SJ, Mazzaferri EL, McIver B, Pacini F, Schlumberger M, Sherman SI, Steward DL, Tuttle RM 2009 Revised American Thyroid Association management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid 19:1167–1214.
 
7. Kloos RT, Eng C, Evans DB, Francis GL, Gagel RF, Gharib H, Moley JF, Pacini F, Ringel MD, Schlumberger M, Wells SA Jr 2009 Medullary thyroid cancer: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association. Thyroid 19:565–612.
 
8. Pitoia F, Ward L, Wohllk N, Friguglietti C, Tomimori E, Gauna A, Camargo R, Vaisman M, Harach R, Munizaga F, Corigliano S, Pretell E, Niepomniszcze H 2009 Recommendations of the Latin American Thyroid Society on diagnosis and management of differentiated thyroid cancer. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol 53:884–887.
 
9. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Thyroid Carcinoma. Available at www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/f_guidelines.asp#thyroid (accessed August 23, 2012).
 
10. Cobin RH, Gharib H, Bergman DA, Clark OH, Cooper DS, Daniels GH, Dickey RA, Duick DS, Garber JR, Hay ID, Kukora JS, Lando HM, Schorr AB, Zeiger MA 2001 AACE/AAES medical/surgical guidelines for clinical practice: management of thyroid carcinoma. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. American College of Endocrinology. Endocr Pract 7:202–220.
 
11. Qaseem A, Snow V, Owens DK, Shekelle P 2010 The development of clinical practice guidelines and guidance statements of the American College of Physicians: summary of methods. Ann Intern Med 153:194–199.
 
12. Atkins D, Best D, Briss PA, Eccles M, Falck-Ytter Y, Flottorp S, Guyatt GH, Harbour RT, Haugh MC, Henry D, Hill S, Jaeschke R, Leng G, Liberati A, Magrini N, Mason J, Middleton P, Mrukowicz J, O'Connell D, Oxman AD, Phillips B, Schunemann HJ, Edejer TT, Varonen H, Vist GE, Williams JW Jr, Zaza S 2004 Grading quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ 328:1490–1494.
 
12a.  Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, Fritz AG, Greene FL, Trotti A (eds) 2010 AJCC Cancer Staging Handbook: From the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, 7th ed. Springer-Verlag, New York.
 
13. Boerner S, Asa SL 2009 Biopsy Interpretation of the Thyroid. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
 
14. Carcangiu ML, Steeper T, Zampi G, Rosai J 1985 Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. A study of 70 cases. Am J Clin Pathol 83:135–158.
 
15. Venkatesh YS, Ordonez NG, Schultz PN, Hickey RC, Goepfert H, Samaan NA 1990 Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid. A clinicopathologic study of 121 cases. Cancer 66:321–330.
 
16. Bronner MP, LiVolsi VA 1991 Spindle cell squamous carcinoma of the thyroid: an unusual anaplastic tumor associated with tall cell papillary cancer. Mod Pathol 4:637–643.
 
17. Yoshida A, Kamma H, Asaga T, Masuzawa C, Kawahara S, Mimura T, Ito K 1992 Proliferative activity in thyroid tumors. Cancer 69:2548–2552.
 
18. Ordonez NG, El-Naggar AK, Hickey RC, Samaan NA 1991 Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Immunocytochemical study of 32 cases. Am J Clin Pathol 96:15–24.
 
19. Gaffey MJ, Lack EE, Christ ML, Weiss LM 1991 Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells. A clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study. Am J Surg Pathol 15:160–168.
 
20. Rosai J, Carcangiu ML, DeLellis RA 1992 Undifferentiated (anaplastic) carcinoma. In: Rosai J, Carcangiu ML, DeLellis RA (eds) Tumors of the Thyroid Gland, 3rd edition. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC, pp 135–159.
 
21. Albores-Saavedra J, Henson DE, Glazer E, Schwartz AM 2007 Changing patterns in the incidence and survival of thyroid cancer with follicular phenotype—papillary, follicular, and anaplastic: a morphological and epidemiological study. Endocr Pathol 18:1–7.
 
22. Seethala RR, Nikiforov YE 2009 Anaplastic (undifferentiated) carcinoma. In: Nikiforov YE, Biddinger PW, Thompson LDR (eds) Diagnostic Pathology and Molecular Genetics of the Thyroid: A Comprehensive Guide for Practicing Thyroid Pathology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 228–248.
 
23. Wan SK, Chan JK, Tang SK 1996 Paucicellular variant of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. A mimic of Reidel's thyroiditis. Am J Clin Pathol 105:388–393.
 
24. Nishiyama RH, Dunn EL, Thompson NW 1972 Anaplastic spindle-cell and giant-cell tumors of the thyroid gland. Cancer 30:113–127.
 
25. Canos JC, Serrano A, Matias-Guiu X 2001 Paucicellular variant of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: report of two cases. Endocr Pathol 12:157–161.
 
26. Albores-Saavedra J, Hernandez M, Sanchez-Sosa S, Simpson K, Angeles A, Henson DE 2007 Histologic variants of papillary and follicular carcinomas associated with anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinomas of the thyroid: an analysis of rhabdoid and thyroglobulin inclusions. Am J Surg Pathol 31:729–736.
 
27. Chetty R, Govender D 1999 Follicular thyroid carcinoma with rhabdoid phenotype. Virchows Arch 435:133–136.
 
28. Albores-Saavedra J, Sharma S 2001 Poorly differentiated follicular thyroid carcinoma with rhabdoid phenotype: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study of two cases. Mod Pathol 14:98–104.
 
29. Sumida T, Hamakawa H, Imaoka M, Okamoto N, Takarada M, Tanioka H, Ueda N, Nose M 2001 A case of submandibular malignant rhabdoid tumor transformed from papillary thyroid carcinoma. J Oral Pathol Med 30:443–447.
 
30. Lai ML, Faa G, Serra S, Senes G, Daniele GM, Boi F, Mariotti S, Beauchemin M, Asa SL 2005 Rhabdoid tumor of the thyroid gland: a variant of anaplastic carcinoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 129:e55–57.
 
31. Sato K, Waseda R, Tatsuzawa Y, Soma R, Ueda Y, Katsuda S 2006 Papillary thyroid carcinoma with anaplastic transformation showing a rhabdoid phenotype solely in the cervical lymph node metastasis. Pathol Res Pract 202:55–59.
 
32. Tobler A, Maurer R, Hedinger CE 1984 Undifferentiated thyroid tumors of diffuse small cell type. Histological and immunohistochemical evidence for their lymphomatous nature. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol 404:117–126.
 
33. Mambo NC, Irwin SM 1984 Anaplastic small cell neoplasms of the thyroid: an immunoperoxidase study. Hum Pathol 15:55–60.
 
34. Sakamoto A, Kasai N, Sugano H 1983 Poorly differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid. A clinicopathologic entity for a high-risk group of papillary and follicular carcinomas. Cancer 52:1849–1855.
 
35. Van der Laan BF, Freeman JL, Tsang RW, Asa SL 1993 The association of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma with insular or anaplastic thyroid carcinoma; evidence for dedifferentiation in tumor progression. Endocr Pathol 4:215–221.
 
36. Volante M, Collini P, Nikiforov YE, Sakamoto A, Kakudo K, Katoh R, Lloyd RV, LiVolsi VA, Papotti M, Sobrinho-Simoes M, Bussolati G, Rosai J 2007 Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma: the Turin proposal for the use of uniform diagnostic criteria and an algorithmic diagnostic approach. Am J Surg Pathol 31:1256–1264.
 
37. Hiltzik D, Carlson DL, Tuttle RM, Chuai S, Ishill N, Shaha A, Shah JP, Singh B, Ghossein RA 2006 Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas defined on the basis of mitosis and necrosis: a clinicopathologic study of 58 patients. Cancer 106:1286–1295.
 
38. Hurlimann J, Gardiol D, Scazziga B 1987 Immunohistology of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. A study of 43 cases. Histopathology 11:567–580.
 
39. Miettinen M, Franssila KO 2000 Variable expression of keratins and nearly uniform lack of thyroid transcription factor 1 in thyroid anaplastic carcinoma. Hum Pathol 31:1139–1145.
 
40. Baloch ZW, LiVolsi VA 2008 Unusual tumors of the thyroid gland. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 37:297–310, vii.
 
41. Makay O, Kaya T, Ertan Y, Icoz G, Akyildiz M, Yilmaz M, Tuncyurek M, Yetkin E 2008 Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid: report of three cases. Endocr J 55:359–364.
 
42. Sanchez-Sosa S, Rios-Luna NP, Tamayo Bdel R, Simpson K, Albores-Saavedra J 2006 Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid arising in Hashimoto's thyroiditis in an adolescent. Pediatr Dev Pathol 9:496–500.
 
43. Zhou XH 2002 Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid. Eur J Surg Oncol 28:42–45.
 
44. Sutak J, Armstrong JS, Rusby JE 2005 Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a tall cell papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. J Clin Pathol 58:662–664.
 
45. Kitahara S, Ito T, Hamatani S, Shibuya K, Shiba T 2006 Thyroid papillary carcinoma recurring as squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case. Surg Today 36:171–174.
 
46. Moinuddin S, Barazi H, Moinuddin M 2008 Acute blastomycosis thyroiditis. Thyroid 18:659–661.
 
47. Weiss IA, Limaye A, Tchertkoff V, Brener JL 1989 Sarcoidosis of the thyroid clinically mimicking malignancy. NY State J Med 89:578–580.
 
48. LiVolsi VA, Brooks JJ, Arendash-Durand B 1987 Anaplastic thyroid tumors. Immunohistology. Am J Clin Pathol 87:434–442.
 
49. Shvero J, Gal R, Avidor I, Hadar T, Kessler E 1988 Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. A clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical study. Cancer 62:319–325.
 
50. Tacha D, Zhou D, Cheng L 2011 Expression of PAX8 in normal and neoplastic tissues: a comprehensive immunohistochemical study. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 19:293–299.
 
51. Chang TC, Liaw KY, Kuo SH, Chang CC, Chen FW 1989 Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: review of 24 cases, with emphasis on cytodiagnosis and leukocytosis. Taiwan Yi Xue Hui Za Zhi 88:551–556.
 
52. Guarda LA, Peterson CE, Hall W, Baskin HJ 1991 Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: cytomorphology and clinical implications of fine-needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol 7:63–67.
 
53. Us-Krasovec M, Golouh R, Auersperg M, Besic N, Ruparcic-Oblak L 1996 Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in fine needle aspirates. Acta Cytol 40:953–958.
 
54. Giard RW, Hermans J 2000 Use and accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology in histologically proven thyroid carcinoma: an audit using a national pathology database. Cancer 90:330–334.
 
55. Aldinger KA, Samaan NA, Ibanez M, Hill CS Jr 1978 Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid: a review of 84 cases of spindle and giant cell carcinoma of the thyroid. Cancer 41:2267–2275.
 
56. LiVolsi VA 1990 Surgical Pathology of the Thyroid. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.
 
57. Spires JR, Schwartz MR, Miller RH 1988 Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Association with differentiated thyroid cancer. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 114:40–44.
 
58. McIver B, Hay ID, Giuffrida DF, Dvorak CE, Grant CS, Thompson GB, van Heerden JA, Goellner JR 2001 Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: a 50-year experience at a single institution. Surgery 130:1028–1034.
 
59. Lam KY, Lo CY, Chan KW, Wan KY 2000 Insular and anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid: a 45-year comparative study at a single institution and a review of the significance of p53 and p21. Ann Surg 231:329–338.
 
60. Nikiforova MN, Kimura ET, Gandhi M, Biddinger PW, Knauf JA, Basolo F, Zhu Z, Giannini R, Salvatore G, Fusco A, Santoro M, Fagin JA, Nikiforov YE 2003 BRAF mutations in thyroid tumors are restricted to papillary carcinomas and anaplastic or poorly differentiated carcinomas arising from papillary carcinomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:5399–5404.
 
61. Sugitani I, Kasai N, Fujimoto Y, Yanagisawa A 2001 Prognostic factors and therapeutic strategy for anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid. World J Surg 25:617–622.
 
62. Sugino K, Ito K, Mimura T, Nagahama M, Fukunari N, Kubo A, Iwasaki H, Ito K 2002 The important role of operations in the management of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Surgery 131:245–248.
 
63. Ekman ET, Wallin G, Backdahl M, Lowhagen T, Auer G 1989 Nuclear DNA content in anaplastic giant-cell thyroid carcinoma. Am J Clin Oncol 12:442–446.
 
64. Klemi PJ, Joensuu H, Eerola E 1988 DNA aneuploidy in anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Am J Clin Pathol 89:154–159.
 
65. Roque L, Soares J, Castedo S 1998 Cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies in a case of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 103:7–10.
 
66. Jenkins RB, Hay ID, Herath JF, Schultz CG, Spurbeck JL, Grant CS, Goellner JR, Dewald GW 1990 Frequent occurrence of cytogenetic abnormalities in sporadic nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma. Cancer 66:1213–1220.
 
67. Miura D, Wada N, Chin K, Magrane GG, Wong M, Duh QY, Clark OH 2003 Anaplastic thyroid cancer: cytogenetic patterns by comparative genomic hybridization. Thyroid 13:283–290.
 
68. Wilkens L, Benten D, Tchinda J, Brabant G, Potter E, Dralle H, von Wasielewski R 2000 Aberrations of chromosomes 5 and 8 as recurrent cytogenetic events in anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid as detected by fluorescence in situ hybridisation and comparative genomic hybridisation. Virchows Arch 436:312–318.
 
69. Wreesmann VB, Ghossein RA, Patel SG, Harris CP, Schnaser EA, Shaha AR, Tuttle RM, Shah JP, Rao PH, Singh B 2002 Genome-wide appraisal of thyroid cancer progression. Am J Pathol 161:1549–1556.
 
70. Kitamura Y, Shimizu K, Tanaka S, Ito K, Emi M 2000 Allelotyping of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: frequent allelic losses on 1q, 9p, 11, 17, 19p, and 22q. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 27:244–251.
 
71. Hunt JL, Tometsko M, LiVolsi VA, Swalsky P, Finkelstein SD, Barnes EL 2003 Molecular evidence of anaplastic transformation in coexisting well-differentiated and anaplastic carcinomas of the thyroid. Am J Surg Pathol 27:1559–1564.
 
72. Kadota M, Tamaki Y, Sekimoto M, Fujiwara Y, Aritake N, Hasegawa S, Kobayashi T, Ikeda T, Horii A, Monden M 2003 Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 16p and 18q in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Oncol Rep 10:35–38.
 
73. Ito T, Seyama T, Mizuno T, Tsuyama N, Hayashi Y, Dohi K, Nakamura N, Akiyama M 1993 Genetic alterations in thyroid tumor progression: association with p53 gene mutations. Jpn J Cancer Res 84:526–531.
 
74. Rodrigues RF, Roque L, Rosa-Santos J, Cid O, Soares J 2004 Chromosomal imbalances associated with anaplastic transformation of follicular thyroid carcinomas. Br J Cancer 90:492–496.
 
75. Fagin JA, Matsuo K, Karmakar A, Chen DL, Tang SH, Koeffler HP 1993 High prevalence of mutations of the p53 gene in poorly differentiated human thyroid carcinomas. J Clin Invest 91:179–184.
 
76. Donghi R, Longoni A, Pilotti S, Michieli P, Della Porta G, Pierotti MA 1993 Gene p53 mutations are restricted to poorly differentiated and undifferentiated carcinomas of the thyroid gland. J Clin Invest 91:1753–1760.
 
77. Dobashi Y, Sugimura H, Sakamoto A, Mernyei M, Mori M, Oyama T, Machinami R 1994 Stepwise participation of p53 gene mutation during dedifferentiation of human thyroid carcinomas. Diagn Mol Pathol 3:9–14.
 
78. Ito T, Seyama T, Mizuno T, Tsuyama N, Hayashi T, Hayashi Y, Dohi K, Nakamura N, Akiyama M 1992 Unique association of p53 mutations with undifferentiated but not with differentiated carcinomas of the thyroid gland. Cancer Res 52:1369–1371.
 
79. Garcia-Rostan G, Camp RL, Herrero A, Carcangiu ML, Rimm DL, Tallini G 2001 Beta-catenin dysregulation in thyroid neoplasms: down-regulation, aberrant nuclear expression, and CTNNB1 exon 3 mutations are markers for aggressive tumor phenotypes and poor prognosis. Am J Pathol 158:987–996.
 
80. Garcia-Rostan G, Tallini G, Herrero A, D'Aquila TG, Carcangiu ML, Rimm DL 1999 Frequent mutation and nuclear localization of beta-catenin in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Cancer Res 59:1811–1815.
 
81. Kondo T, Ezzat S, Asa SL 2006 Pathogenetic mechanisms in thyroid follicular-cell neoplasia. Nat Rev Cancer 6:292–306.
 
82. Mochizuki K, Kondo T, Nakazawa T, Iwashina M, Kawasaki T, Nakamura N, Yamane T, Murata S, Ito K, Kameyama K, Kobayashi M, Katoh R 2010 RET rearrangements and BRAF mutation in undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas having papillary carcinoma components. Histopathology 57:444–450.
 
83. Sugg SL, Ezzat S, Zheng L, Freeman JL, Rosen IB, Asa SL 1999 Oncogene profile of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Surgery 125:46–52.
 
84. Smallridge RC, Marlow LA, Copland JA 2009 Anaplastic thyroid cancer: molecular pathogenesis and emerging therapies. Endocr Relat Cancer 16:17–44.
 
85. Buergy D, Weber T, Maurer GD, Mudduluru G, Medved F, Leupold JH, Brauckhoff M, Post S, Dralle H, Allgayer H 2009 Urokinase receptor, MMP-1 and MMP-9 are markers to differentiate prognosis, adenoma and carcinoma in thyroid malignancies. Int J Cancer 125:894–901.
 
86. Haas V, Celakovsky P, Brtkova J, Hornychova H 2008 Unusual manifestation of anaplastic thyroid cancer. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove) 51:233–236.
 
87. Fujita T, Ogasawara Y, Naito M, Doihara H, Shimizu N 2006 Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma associated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: report of a case. Surg Today 36:63–67.
 
88. Sato T, Omura M, Saito J, Hirasawa A, Kakuta Y, Wakabayashi Y, Nishikawa T 2000 Neutrophilia associated with anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid: production of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and interleukin-6. Thyroid 10:1113–1118.
 
89. Alagol F, Tanakol R, Boztepe H, Kapran Y, Terzioglu T, Dizdaroglu F 1999 Anaplastic thyroid cancer with transient thyrotoxicosis: case report and literature review. Thyroid 9:1029–1032.
 
90. Heymann RS, Brent GA, Hershman JM 2005 Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with thyrotoxicosis and hypoparathyroidism. Endocr Pract 11:281–284.
 
91. Iwai H, Ohno Y, Aoki N 2004 Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM): an autopsy case report. Endocr J 51:303–310.
 
92. Bjorkman MP, Sorva AJ, Tilvis RS 2009 Calculated serum calcium is an insufficient surrogate for measured ionized calcium. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 49:348–350.
 
93. Pfitzenmeyer P, Martin I, d'Athis P, Grumbach Y, Delmestre MC, Blonde-Cynober F, Derycke B, Brondel L 2007 A new formula for correction of total calcium level into ionized serum calcium values in very elderly hospitalized patients. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 45:151–157.
 
94. Loevner LA, Kaplan SL, Cunnane ME, Moonis G 2008 Cross-sectional imaging of the thyroid gland. Neuroimaging Clin N Am 18:445–461, vii.
 
95. Bogsrud TV, Karantanis D, Nathan MA, Mullan BP, Wiseman GA, Kasperbauer JL, Reading CC, Hay ID, Lowe VJ 2008 18F-FDG PET in the management of patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid 18:713–719.
 
96. Khan N, Oriuchi N, Higuchi T, Endo K 2005 Review of fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the follow-up of medullary and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. Cancer Control 12:254–260.
 
97. Nguyen BD, Ram PC 2007 PET/CT staging and posttherapeutic monitoring of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Clin Nucl Med 32:145–149.
 
98. Poisson T, Deandreis D, Leboulleux S, Bidault F, Bonniaud G, Baillot S, Auperin A, Al Ghuzlan A, Travagli JP, Lumbroso J, Baudin E, Schlumberger M 2010 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography in anaplastic thyroid cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 37:2277–2285.
 
99. Samih N, Hovsepian S, Notel F, Prorok M, Zattara-Cannoni H, Mathieu S, Lombardo D, Fayet G, El-Battari A 2003 The impact of N- and O-glycosylation on the functions of Glut-1 transporter in human thyroid anaplastic cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1621:92–101.
 
100. Miyakoshi A, Dalley RW, Anzai Y 2007 Magnetic resonance imaging of thyroid cancer. Top Magn Reson Imaging 18:293–302.
 
101. Tan RK, Finley RK 3rd, Driscoll D, Bakamjian V, Hicks WL Jr, Shedd DP 1995 Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid: a 24-year experience. Head Neck 17:41–47; discussion 47–48.
 
102. Zhang ZM, Xu ZG, Tang PZ, Xue LY, Lu N 2006 [A retrospective analysis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 28:322–324.
 
103. Besic N, Auersperg M, Us-Krasovec M, Golouh R, Frkovic-Grazio S, Vodnik A 2001 Effect of primary treatment on survival in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Eur J Surg Oncol 27:260–264.
 
104. Higashiyama T, Ito Y, Hirokawa M, Fukushima M, Uruno T, Miya A, Matsuzuka F, Miyauchi A 2010 Induction chemotherapy with weekly paclitaxel administration for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid 20:7–14.
 
105. Are C, Shaha AR 2006 Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: biology, pathogenesis, prognostic factors, and treatment approaches. Ann Surg Oncol 13:453–464.
 
106. Neff RL, Farrar WB, Kloos RT, Burman KD 2008 Anaplastic thyroid cancer. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 37:525–538, xi.
 
107. Sherman S 2006 Anaplastic cancer: prognosis. In: Wartofsky L, Van Nostrand D (eds) Thyroid Cancer: A Comprehensive Guide to Clinical Management, 2nd edition. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp 647–648.
 
108. Gilliland FD, Hunt WC, Morris DM, Key CR 1997 Prognostic factors for thyroid carcinoma. A population-based study of 15,698 cases from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program 1973–1991. Cancer 79:564–573.
 
109. Kim TY, Kim KW, Jung TS, Kim JM, Kim SW, Chung KW, Kim EY, Gong G, Oh YL, Cho SY, Yi KH, Kim WB, Park do J, Chung JH, Cho BY, Shong YK 2007 Prognostic factors for Korean patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Head Neck 29:765–772.
 
110. Kebebew E, Greenspan FS, Clark OH, Woeber KA, McMillan A 2005 Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Treatment outcome and prognostic factors. Cancer 103:1330–1335.
 
111. Akslen LA, Haldorsen T, Thoresen SO, Glattre E 1991 Survival and causes of death in thyroid cancer: a population-based study of 2479 cases from Norway. Cancer Res 51:1234–1241.
 
112. Junor EJ, Paul J, Reed NS 1992 Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: 91 patients treated by surgery and radiotherapy. Eur J Surg Oncol 18:83–88.
 
113. Demeter JG, De Jong SA, Lawrence AM, Paloyan E 1991 Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: risk factors and outcome. Surgery 110:956–961; discussion 961–963.
 
114. Akaishi J, Sugino K, Kitagawa W, Nagahama M, Kameyama K, Shimizu K, Ito K 2011 Prognostic factors and treatment outcomes of 100 cases of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid 21:1183–1189.
 
115. Ruhstaller T, Roe H, Thurlimann B, Nicoll JJ 2006 The multidisciplinary meeting: an indispensable aid to communication between different specialities. Eur J Cancer 42:2459–2462.
 
116. Harrison JD, Choy ET, Spillane A, Butow P, Young JM, Evans A 2008 Australian breast cancer specialists' involvement in multidisciplinary treatment planning meetings. Breast 17:335–340.
 
117. Sharma A, Sharp DM, Walker LG, Monson JR 2008 Colorectal MDTs: the team's perspective. Colorectal Dis 10:63–68.
 
118. Blazeby JM, Wilson L, Metcalfe C, Nicklin J, English R, Donovan JL 2006 Analysis of clinical decision-making in multi-disciplinary cancer teams. Ann Oncol 17:457–460.
 
119. Morrison RS, Meier DE 2004 Clinical practice. Palliative care. N Engl J Med 350:2582–2590.
 
120. Teno JM, Lynn J 1996 Putting advance-care planning into action. J Clin Ethics 7:205–213.
 
121. Miles SH, Koepp R, Weber EP 1996 Advance end-of-life treatment planning. A research review. Arch Intern Med 156:1062–1068.
 
122. Fried TR, Bullock K, Iannone L, O'Leary JR 2009 Understanding advance care planning as a process of health behavior change. J Am Geriatr Soc 57:1547–1555.
 
123. Levinsky NG 1996 The purpose of advance medical planning—autonomy for patients or limitation of care? N Engl J Med 335:741–743.
 
124. Corcoran AM 2010 Advance care planning at transitions in care: challenges, opportunities, and benefits. Annals of Long-Term Care: Clinical Care and Aging 18:26–29.
 
125. Wenger NS, Vespa PM 2010 Ethical issues in patient-physician communication about therapy for cancer: professional responsibilities of the oncologist. Oncologist 15(Suppl 1):43–48.
 
126. Etchells E, Darzins P, Silberfeld M, Singer PA, McKenny J, Naglie G, Katz M, Guyatt GH, Molloy DW, Strang D 1999 Assessment of patient capacity to consent to treatment. J Gen Intern Med 14:27–34.
 
127. Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990, Sections 4206 and 4751, Public Law No. 101–508 (November 5, 1990).
 
128. Greco PJ, Schulman KA, Lavizzo-Mourey R, Hansen-Flaschen J 1991 The Patient Self-Determination Act and the future of advance directives. Ann Intern Med 115:639–643.
 
129. Pope TM 2011 Comparing the FHCDA to surrogate decision making laws in other states. NYSBA Health Law Journal 16:107–111.
 
130. Etchells E, Sharpe G, Elliott C, Singer PA 1996 Bioethics for clinicians: 3. Capacity. CMAJ 155:657–661.
 
131. Emanuel EJ, Emanuel LL 1992 Proxy decision making for incompetent patients. An ethical and empirical analysis. JAMA 267:2067–2071..
 
132. Berger JT, DeRenzo EG, Schwartz J 2008 Surrogate decision making: reconciling ethical theory and clinical practice. Ann Intern Med 149:48–53..
 
133. Etchells E, Sharpe G, Dykeman MJ, Meslin EM, Singer PA 1996 Bioethics for clinicians: 4. Voluntariness. CMAJ 155:1083–1086..
 
134. Wenger NS 2005 Improving end of life decisions and pain management. Lecture delivered to University of Kentucky Program for Bioethics: April 12, 2005..
 
135. Rogers WA 1999 Beneficence in general practice: an empirical investigation. J Med Ethics 25:388–393.
 
136. Pellegrino ED 1992 Beneficence, scientific autonomy, and self-interest: ethical dilemmas in clinical research. Camb Q Healthc Ethics 1:361–369.
 
137. Emanuel EJ, Emanuel LL 1992 Four models of the physician-patient relationship. JAMA 267:2221–2226.
 
138. Etchells E, Sharpe G, Burgess MM, Singer PA 1996 Bioethics for clinicians: 2. Disclosure. CMAJ 155:387–391.
 
139. Etchells E, Sharpe G, Walsh P, Williams JR, Singer PA 1996 Bioethics for clinicians: 1. Consent. CMAJ 155:177–180.
 
140. Childress JF, Meslin EM, Shapiro HT 2005 Belmont Revisited: Ethical Principles for Research with Human Subjects. Georgetown University Press, Washington, DC.
 
141. Levine RJ 1988 Ethics and Regulation of Clinical Research, 2nd edition. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.
 
142. McClain CS, Rosenfeld B, Breitbart W 2003 Effect of spiritual well-being on end-of-life despair in terminally-ill cancer patients. Lancet 361:1603–1607.
 
143. Ehman JW, Ott BB, Short TH, Ciampa RC, Hansen-Flaschen J 1999 Do patients want physicians to inquire about their spiritual or religious beliefs if they become gravely ill? Arch Intern Med 159:1803–1806.
 
144. Rousseau P 2001 Existential suffering and palliative sedation: a brief commentary with a proposal for clinical guidelines. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 18:151–153.
 
145. Emanuel LL 2008 Advance directives. Annu Rev Med 59:187–198.
 
146. Silveira MJ, Kim SY, Langa KM 2010 Advance directives and outcomes of surrogate decision making before death. N Engl J Med 362:1211–1218.
 
147. Venneman SS, Narnor-Harris P, Perish M, Hamilton M 2008 “Allow natural death” versus “do not resuscitate”: three words that can change a life. J Med Ethics 34:2–6.
 
148. Bergman-Evans B, Kuhnel L, McNitt D, Myers S 2008 Uncovering beliefs and barriers: staff attitudes related to advance directives. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 25:347–353.
 
149. Bishop JP, Brothers KB, Perry JE, Ahmad A 2010 Reviving the conversation around CPR/DNR. Am J Bioeth 10:61–67.
 
150. Hamann AA 1993 Family surrogate laws: a necessary supplement to living wills and durable powers of attorney. Villanova Law Rev 38:103–177.
 
151. Doukas DJ, McCullough LB 1991 The values history. The evaluation of the patient's values and advance directives. J Fam Pract 32:145–153.
 
152. Quill TE 2000 Perspectives on care at the close of life. Initiating end-of-life discussions with seriously ill patients: addressing the “elephant in the room”. JAMA 284:2502–2507.
 
153. Jones JW, McCullough LB 2008 Just how far goes DNR? J Vasc Surg 48:1630–1632.
 
154. Berry SR, Singer PA 1998 The cancer specific advance directive. Cancer 82:1570–1577.
 
155. Pierie JP, Muzikansky A, Gaz RD, Faquin WC, Ott MJ 2002 The effect of surgery and radiotherapy on outcome of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol 9:57–64.
 
156. Swaak-Kragten AT, de Wilt JH, Schmitz PI, Bontenbal M, Levendag PC 2009 Multimodality treatment for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma—treatment outcome in 75 patients. Radiother Oncol 92:100–104.
 
157. Haigh PI, Ituarte PH, Wu HS, Treseler PA, Posner MD, Quivey JM, Duh QY, Clark OH 2001 Completely resected anaplastic thyroid carcinoma combined with adjuvant chemotherapy and irradiation is associated with prolonged survival. Cancer 91:2335–2342.
 
158. Goutsouliak V, Hay JH 2005 Anaplastic thyroid cancer in British Columbia 1985–1999: a population-based study. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 17:75–78.
 
159. Brignardello E, Gallo M, Baldi I, Palestini N, Piovesan A, Grossi E, Ciccone G, Boccuzzi G 2007 Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: clinical outcome of 30 consecutive patients referred to a single institution in the past 5 years. Eur J Endocrinol 156:425–430.
 
160. Kihara M, Miyauchi A, Yamauchi A, Yokomise H 2004 Prognostic factors of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Surg Today 34:394–398.
 
161. De Crevoisier R, Baudin E, Bachelot A, Leboulleux S, Travagli JP, Caillou B, Schlumberger M 2004 Combined treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with surgery, chemotherapy, and hyperfractionated accelerated external radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 60:1137–1143.
 
162. Schlumberger M, Parmentier C, Delisle MJ, Couette JE, Droz JP, Sarrazin D 1991 Combination therapy for anaplastic giant cell thyroid carcinoma. Cancer 67:564–566.
 
163. Chen J, Tward JD, Shrieve DC, Hitchcock YJ 2008 Surgery and radiotherapy improves survival in patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: analysis of the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results 1983–2002. Am J Clin Oncol 31:460–464.
 
164. Ito KI, Hanamura T, Murayama K, Okada T, Watanabe T, Harada M, Ito T, Koyama H, Kanai T, Maeno K, Mochizuki Y, Amano J 2012 Multimodality therapeutic outcomes in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: improved survival in subgroups of patients with localized primary tumors. Head Neck 34:230–237.
 
165. Kim JH, Leeper RD 1983 Treatment of anaplastic giant and spindle cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland with combination adriamycin and radiation therapy. A new approach. Cancer 52:954–957.
 
166. Tennvall J, Lundell G, Wahlberg P, Bergenfelz A, Grimelius L, Akerman M, Hjelm Skog AL, Wallin G 2002 Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: three protocols combining doxorubicin, hyperfractionated radiotherapy and surgery. Br J Cancer 86:1848–1853.
 
167. Levendag PC, De Porre PM, van Putten WL 1993 Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid gland treated by radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 26:125–128.
 
168. Wang Y, Tsang R, Asa S, Dickson B, Arenovich T, Brierley J 2006 Clinical outcome of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma treated with radiotherapy of once- and twice-daily fractionation regimens. Cancer 107:1786–1792.
 
169. Besic N, Hocevar M, Zgajnar J, Pogacnik A, Grazio-Frkovic S, Auersperg M 2005 Prognostic factors in anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid—a multivariate survival analysis of 188 patients. Langenbecks Arch Surg 390:203–208.
 
170. Voutilainen PE, Multanen M, Haapiainen RK, Leppaniemi AK, Sivula AH 1999 Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma survival. World J Surg 23:975–978; discussion 978–979.
 
171. Pasieka JL 2003 Anaplastic thyroid cancer. Curr Opin Oncol 15:78–83.
 
172. Shaha AR 2008 Airway management in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Laryngoscope 118:1195–1198.
 
173. Holting T, Meybier H, Buhr H 1989 [Problems of tracheotomy in locally invasive anaplastic thyroid cancer]. Langenbecks Arch Chir 374:72–76.
 
174. Veness MJ, Porter GS, Morgan GJ 2004 Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: dismal outcome despite current treatment approach. ANZ J Surg 74:559–562.
 
175. Kobayashi T, Asakawa H, Umeshita K, Takeda T, Maruyama H, Matsuzuka F, Monden M 1996 Treatment of 37 patients with anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid. Head Neck 18:36–41.
 
176. Busnardo B, Daniele O, Pelizzo MR, Mazzarotto R, Nacamulli D, Devido D, Mian C, Girelli ME 2000 A multimodality therapeutic approach in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: study on 39 patients. J Endocrinol Invest 23:755–761.
 
177. Bhatia A, Rao A, Ang KK, Garden AS, Morrison WH, Rosenthal DI, Evans DB, Clayman G, Sherman SI, Schwartz DL 2010 Anaplastic thyroid cancer: clinical outcomes with conformal radiotherapy. Head Neck 32:829–836.
 
178. Derbel O, Limem S, Segura-Ferlay C, Lifante JC, Carrie C, Peix JL, Borson-Chazot F, Bournaud C, Droz JP, de la Fouchardiere C 2011 Results of combined treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC). BMC Cancer 11:469.
 
179. Sherman EJ, Lim SH, Ho AL, Ghossein RA, Fury MG, Shaha AR, Rivera M, Lin O, Wolden S, Lee NY, Pfister DG 2011 Concurrent doxorubicin and radiotherapy for anaplastic thyroid cancer: a critical re-evaluation including uniform pathologic review. Radiother Oncol 101:425–430.
 
180. Lee N, Xia P, Quivey JM, Sultanem K, Poon I, Akazawa C, Akazawa P, Weinberg V, Fu KK 2002 Intensity-modulated radiotherapy in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: an update of the UCSF experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 53:12–22.
 
181. Bhide SA, Kazi R, Newbold K, Harrington KJ, Nutting CM 2010 The role of intensity-modulated radiotherapy in head and neck cancer. Indian J Cancer 47:267–273.
 
182. Nutting CM, Convery DJ, Cosgrove VP, Rowbottom C, Vini L, Harmer C, Dearnaley DP, Webb S 2001 Improvements in target coverage and reduced spinal cord irradiation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Radiother Oncol 60:173–180.
 
183. Schwartz DL, Lobo MJ, Ang KK, Morrison WH, Rosenthal DI, Ahamad A, Evans DB, Clayman G, Sherman SI, Garden AS 2009 Postoperative external beam radiotherapy for differentiated thyroid cancer: outcomes and morbidity with conformal treatment. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 74:1083–1091.
 
184. Brierley J, Rumble RB, Warde P, and members of the IMRT Indications Expert Panel. The Role of IMRT in Thyroid Cancers: Cancer Care Ontario. Available at https://www.cancercare.on.ca/common/pages/UserFile.aspx?fileId=87005 (accessed August 23, 2012).
 
185. Ain KB, Egorin MJ, DeSimone PA 2000 Treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with paclitaxel: phase 2 trial using ninety-six-hour infusion. Collaborative anaplastic thyroid cancer health intervention trials (CATCHIT) group. Thyroid 10:587–594.
 
186. Troch M, Koperek O, Scheuba C, Dieckmann K, Hoffmann M, Niederle B, Raderer M 2010 High efficacy of concomitant treatment of undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid cancer with radiation and docetaxel. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:E54–57.
 
187. Foote RL, Molina JR, Kasperbauer JL, Lloyd RV, McIver B, Morris JC, Grant CS, Thompson GB, Richards ML, Hay ID, Smallridge RC, Bible KC 2011 Enhanced survival in locoregionally confined anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: a single-institution experience using aggressive multimodal therapy. Thyroid 21:25–30.
 
188. Kawada K, Kitagawa K, Kamei S, Inada M, Mitsuma A, Sawaki M, Kikumori T, Fujimoto Y, Arima H, Imai T, Ando Y 2010 The feasibility study of docetaxel in patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer. Jpn J Clin Oncol 40:596–599.
 
189. Dandekar P, Harmer C, Barbachano Y, Rhys-Evans P, Harrington K, Nutting C, Newbold K 2009 Hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (HART) for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: toxicity and survival analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 74:518–521.
 
190. Tennvall J, Lundell G, Hallquist A, Wahlberg P, Wallin G, Tibblin S 1994 Combined doxorubicin, hyperfractionated radiotherapy, and surgery in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Report on two protocols. The Swedish Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Group. Cancer 74:1348–1354.
 
191. Shimaoka K, Schoenfeld DA, DeWys WD, Creech RH, DeConti R 1985 A randomized trial of doxorubicin versus doxorubicin plus cisplatin in patients with advanced thyroid carcinoma. Cancer 56:2155–2160.
 
192. Mooney CJ, Nagaiah G, Fu P, Wasman JK, Cooney MM, Savvides PS, Bokar JA, Dowlati A, Wang D, Agarwala SS, Flick SM, Hartman PH, Ortiz JD, Lavertu PN, Remick SC 2009 A phase II trial of fosbretabulin in advanced anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and correlation of baseline serum-soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 with outcome. Thyroid 19:233–240.
 
193. Dowlati A, Robertson K, Cooney M, Petros WP, Stratford M, Jesberger J, Rafie N, Overmoyer B, Makkar V, Stambler B, Taylor A, Waas J, Lewin JS, McCrae KR, Remick SC 2002 A phase I pharmacokinetic and translational study of the novel vascular targeting agent combretastatin a-4 phosphate on a single-dose intravenous schedule in patients with advanced cancer. Cancer Res 62:3408–3416.
 
194. Gupta-Abramson V, Troxel AB, Nellore A, Puttaswamy K, Redlinger M, Ransone K, Mandel SJ, Flaherty KT, Loevner LA, O'Dwyer PJ, Brose MS 2008 Phase II trial of sorafenib in advanced thyroid cancer. J Clin Oncol 26:4714–4719.
 
195. Kloos RT, Ringel MD, Knopp MV, Hall NC, King M, Stevens R, Liang J, Wakely PE Jr, Vasko VV, Saji M, Rittenberry J, Wei L, Arbogast D, Collamore M, Wright JJ, Grever M, Shah MH 2009 Phase II trial of sorafenib in metastatic thyroid cancer. J Clin Oncol 27:1675–1684.
 
196. Cohen EE, Rosen LS, Vokes EE, Kies MS, Forastiere AA, Worden FP, Kane MA, Sherman E, Kim S, Bycott P, Tortorici M, Shalinsky DR, Liau KF, Cohen RB 2008 Axitinib is an active treatment for all histologic subtypes of advanced thyroid cancer: results from a phase II study. J Clin Oncol 26:4708–4713.
 
197. Pennell NA, Daniels GH, Haddad RI, Ross DS, Evans T, Wirth LJ, Fidias PH, Temel JS, Gurubhagavatula S, Heist RS, Clark JR, Lynch TJ 2008 A phase II study of gefitinib in patients with advanced thyroid cancer. Thyroid 18:317–323.
 
198. Ha HT, Lee JS, Urba S, Koenig RJ, Sisson J, Giordano T, Worden FP 2010 A phase II study of imatinib in patients with advanced anaplastic thyroid cancer. Thyroid 20:975–980.
 
199. Salvati M, Frati A, Rocchi G, Masciangelo R, Antonaci A, Gagliardi FM, Delfini R 2001 Single brain metastasis from thyroid cancer: report of twelve cases and review of the literature. J Neurooncol 51:33–40.
 
200. Chiu AC, Delpassand ES, Sherman SI 1997 Prognosis and treatment of brain metastases in thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:3637–3642.
 
201. Murata Y, Ogawa Y, Yoshida S, Kubota K, Itoh S, Fukumoto M, Nishioka A, Moriki T, Maeda H, Tanaka Y 2004 Utility of initial MRI for predicting extent of residual disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: analysis of 70 breast cancer patients. Oncol Rep 12:1257–1262.
 
202. Koutras AK, Krikelis D, Alexandrou N, Starakis I, Kalofonos HP 2007 Brain metastasis in renal cell cancer responding to sunitinib. Anticancer Res 27:4255–4257.
 
203. Agarwal S, Sane R, Ohlfest JR, Elmquist WF 2011 The role of the breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) in the distribution of sorafenib to the brain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 336:223–233.
 
204. Ryken TC, McDermott M, Robinson PD, Ammirati M, Andrews DW, Asher AL, Burri SH, Cobbs CS, Gaspar LE, Kondziolka D, Linskey ME, Loeffler JS, Mehta MP, Mikkelsen T, Olson JJ, Paleologos NA, Patchell RA, Kalkanis SN 2010 The role of steroids in the management of brain metastases: a systematic review and evidence-based clinical practice guideline. J Neurooncol 96:103–114.
 
205. Mikkelsen T, Paleologos NA, Robinson PD, Ammirati M, Andrews DW, Asher AL, Burri SH, Cobbs CS, Gaspar LE, Kondziolka D, Linskey ME, Loeffler JS, McDermott M, Mehta MP, Olson JJ, Patchell RA, Ryken TC, Kalkanis SN 2010 The role of prophylactic anticonvulsants in the management of brain metastases: a systematic review and evidence-based clinical practice guideline. J Neurooncol 96:97–102.
 
206. Forsyth PA, Weaver S, Fulton D, Brasher PM, Sutherland G, Stewart D, Hagen NA, Barnes P, Cairncross JG, DeAngelis LM 2003 Prophylactic anticonvulsants in patients with brain tumour. Can J Neurol Sci 30:106–112.
 
207. Tickoo SK, Pittas AG, Adler M, Fazzari M, Larson SM, Robbins RJ, Rosai J 2000 Bone metastases from thyroid carcinoma: a histopathologic study with clinical correlates. Arch Pathol Lab Med 124:1440–1447.
 
208. Pittas AG, Adler M, Fazzari M, Tickoo S, Rosai J, Larson SM, Robbins RJ 2000 Bone metastases from thyroid carcinoma: clinical characteristics and prognostic variables in one hundred forty-six patients. Thyroid 10:261–268.
 
209. Aapro M, Abrahamsson PA, Body JJ, Coleman RE, Colomer R, Costa L, Crino L, Dirix L, Gnant M, Gralow J, Hadji P, Hortobagyi GN, Jonat W, Lipton A, Monnier A, Paterson AH, Rizzoli R, Saad F, Thurlimann B 2008 Guidance on the use of bisphosphonates in solid tumours: recommendations of an international expert panel. Ann Oncol 19:420–432.
 
210. Hortobagyi GN, Theriault RL, Porter L, Blayney D, Lipton A, Sinoff C, Wheeler H, Simeone JF, Seaman J, Knight RD 1996 Efficacy of pamidronate in reducing skeletal complications in patients with breast cancer and lytic bone metastases. Protocol 19 Aredia Breast Cancer Study Group. N Engl J Med 335:1785–1791.
 
211. Rosen LS, Gordon D, Kaminski M, Howell A, Belch A, Mackey J, Apffelstaedt J, Hussein MA, Coleman RE, Reitsma DJ, Chen BL, Seaman JJ 2003 Long-term efficacy and safety of zoledronic acid compared with pamidronate disodium in the treatment of skeletal complications in patients with advanced multiple myeloma or breast carcinoma: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, comparative trial. Cancer 98:1735–1744.
 
212. Roodman GD 2004 Mechanisms of bone metastasis. N Engl J Med 350:1655–1664.
 
213. Favus MJ 2010 Bisphosphonates for osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 363:2027–2035.
 
214. Stopeck AT, Lipton A, Body JJ, Steger GG, Tonkin K, de Boer RH, Lichinitser M, Fujiwara Y, Yardley DA, Viniegra M, Fan M, Jiang Q, Dansey R, Jun S, Braun A 2010 Denosumab compared with zoledronic acid for the treatment of bone metastases in patients with advanced breast cancer: a randomized, double-blind study. J Clin Oncol 28:5132–5139.
 
215. Antoch G, Vogt FM, Freudenberg LS, Nazaradeh F, Goehde SC, Barkhausen J, Dahmen G, Bockisch A, Debatin JF, Ruehm SG 2003 Whole-body dual-modality PET/CT and whole-body MRI for tumor staging in oncology. JAMA 290:3199–3206.
 
216. Muresan MM, Olivier P, Leclere J, Sirveaux F, Brunaud L, Klein M, Zarnegar R, Weryha G 2008 Bone metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Endocr Relat Cancer 15:37–49.
 
217. Schirrmeister H, Guhlmann A, Elsner K, Kotzerke J, Glatting G, Rentschler M, Neumaier B, Trager H, Nussle K, Reske SN 1999 Sensitivity in detecting osseous lesions depends on anatomic localization: planar bone scintigraphy versus 18F PET. J Nucl Med 40:1623–1629.
 
218. Harrington KD 1997 Orthopedic surgical management of skeletal complications of malignancy. Cancer 80:1614–1627.
 
219. Patchell RA, Tibbs PA, Regine WF, Payne R, Saris S, Kryscio RJ, Mohiuddin M, Young B 2005 Direct decompressive surgical resection in the treatment of spinal cord compression caused by metastatic cancer: a randomised trial. Lancet 366:643–648.
 
220. Dahl PR, Brodland DG, Goellner JR, Hay ID 1997 Thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the skin: a cutaneous manifestation of a widely disseminated malignancy. J Am Acad Dermatol 36:531–537.
 
221. Capezzone M, Giannasio P, De Sanctis D, Bellitti P, Vena P, Morabito E, Bruno R 2006 Skin metastases from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid 16:513–514.
222. Dedecjus M, Tazbir J, Kaurzel Z, Lewinski A, Strozyk G, Brzezinski J 2007 Selective embolization of thyroid arteries as a preresective and palliative treatment of thyroid cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer 14:847–852.
 
223. Tazbir J, Dedecjus M, Kaurzel Z, Lewinski A, Brzezinski J 2005 Selective embolization of thyroid arteries (SETA) as a palliative treatment of inoperable anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC). Neuro Endocrinol Lett 26:401–406.
 
224. Seo YL, Yoon DY, Lim KJ, Cha JH, Yun EJ, Choi CS, Bae SH 2010 Locally advanced thyroid cancer: can CT help in prediction of extrathyroidal invasion to adjacent structures? AJR Am J Roentgenol 195:W240–244.
 
225. Panzironi G, Rainaldi R, Ricci F, Casale A, De Vargas Macciucca M 2003 Gray-scale and color Doppler findings in bilateral internal jugular vein thrombosis caused by anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid. J Clin Ultrasound 31:111–115.
 
226. Sugimoto S, Doihara H, Ogasawara Y, Aoe M, Sano S, Shimizu N 2006 Intraatrial extension of thyroid cancer: a case report. Acta Med Okayama 60:135–140.
 
227. Lyman GH, Khorana AA, Falanga A, Clarke-Pearson D, Flowers C, Jahanzeb M, Kakkar A, Kuderer NM, Levine MN, Liebman H, Mendelson D, Raskob G, Somerfield MR, Thodiyil P, Trent D, Francis CW 2007 American Society of Clinical Oncology guideline: recommendations for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis and treatment in patients with cancer. J Clin Oncol 25:5490–5505.
 
228. Astrow AB, Popp B 2011 The Palliative Care Information Act in real life. N Engl J Med 364:1885–1887.
 
229. Center to Advance Palliative Care. Analysis of US Hospital Palliative Care Programs: 2010 Snapshot. Available at www.capc.org/news-and-events/releases/analysis-of-us-hospital-palliative... (accessed August 23, 2012).
 
230. Center to Advance Palliative Care. Growth of Palliative Care in US Hospitals 2012 Snapshot. Available at www.capc.org/capc-growth-analysis-snapshot-2011.pdf (accessed August 23, 2012).
 
231. Rodriguez JM, Pinero A, Ortiz S, Moreno A, Sola J, Soria T, Robles R, Parrilla P 2000 Clinical and histological differences in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Eur J Surg 166:34–38.
 
232. Kim JH, Leeper RD 1987 Treatment of locally advanced thyroid carcinoma with combination doxorubicin and radiation therapy. Cancer 60:2372–2375.
 
233. Hadar T, Mor C, Shvero J, Levy R, Segal K 1993 Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid. Eur J Surg Oncol 19:511–516.
 
234. Kitamura Y, Shimizu K, Nagahama M, Sugino K, Ozaki O, Mimura T, Ito K, Tanaka S 1999 Immediate causes of death in thyroid carcinoma: clinicopathological analysis of 161 fatal cases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:4043–4049.
 
235. Wong CS, Van Dyk J, Simpson WJ 1991 Myelopathy following hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Radiother Oncol 20:3–9.